A Systematic Review on Image Data Protection Methods

Faraj Ali Alyaqobi, Nor Adnan Bin Yahaya


Securing data is the main goal of any data security system (DSS). Valuable data must be protected all the time and stored in a very highly secure data storage device. This need has become more critical due to the continuous growth of data size.  Furthermore, non-text data in the form of images, audio, and videos can now be transferred and processed easily and thus become part of sensitive data that needs to be protected. Since there is a need to secure and protect data in any form in order to keep them private and valid, it is expected that there would be many attempts already that have been proposed in the literature for this purpose. This paper reviews a group of these proposed strategies and methods that have been applied to different kinds of DSSs. Challenges and future trends of DSSs are also discussed. A number of main findings are grouped and organized as follows: (1) there are many different kinds of security techniques, each of which offers varying degrees of performance in terms of the amount of data and information that can be managed securely, (2) depending on the architecture of the proposed method, the tactics or strategies of the security system, the kinds of DSSs, as well as a few other factors, some methods are more appropriate for the storage of certain categories of data than others.

Article Metrics

Abstract: 0 Viewers PDF: 0 Viewers


data security; information security; data protection

Full Text:



H. A. Khattak, H. Farman, B. Jan, and I. U. Din, "Toward Integrating Vehicular Clouds with IoT for Smart City Services," IEEE Network, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 65-71, 2019, doi: 10.1109/MNET.2019.1800236.

W. Meng, "Intrusion Detection in the Era of IoT: Building Trust via Traffic Filtering and Sampling," Computer, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 36-43, 2018, doi: 10.1109/MC.2018.3011034.

Q. Lyu, N. Zheng, H. Liu, C. Gao, S. Chen, and J. Liu, "Remotely Access “My” Smart Home in Private: An Anti-Tracking Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 41835-41851, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907602.

W. K. A. Hasan, A. Alraddad, A. Ashour, Y. Ran, M. A. Alkelsh,

and R. A. M. Ajele, "Design and Implementation Smart Transformer based on IoT," in 2019 International Conference on Computing, Electronics & Communications Engineering (iCCECE), 22-23 Aug. 2019 2019, pp. 16-21, doi: 10.1109/iCCECE46942.2019.8941980.

K. K. Raghuvanshi, S. Kumar, and S. Kumar, "A data encryption model based on intertwining logistic map," Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 55, p. 102622, 2020/12/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jisa.2020.102622.

L. Guo, H. Xie, and Y. Li, "Data encryption based blockchain and privacy preserving mechanisms towards big data," Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 70, p. 102741, 2020/07/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvcir.2019.102741.

V. Anjaiah Gujjary and A. Saxena, "A neural network approach for data masking," Neurocomputing, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 1497-1501, 2011/04/01/ 2011, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2011.01.002.

G. Qiu, X. Gui, and Y. Zhao, "Privacy-Preserving Linear Regression on Distributed Data by Homomorphic Encryption and Data Masking," IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 107601-107613, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3000764.

O. Ali-Ozkan and A. Ouda, "Key-based Reversible Data Masking for Business Intelligence Healthcare Analytics Platforms," in 2019 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), 18-20 June 2019 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ISNCC.2019.8909125.

S. I. Tomashevich and A. O. Belyavsky, "Navigation data transfer in a quadrotor formation via a binary communication channel with adaptive coding and data erasure," in 2017 24th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems (ICINS), 29-31 May 2017 2017, pp. 1-3, doi: 10.23919/ICINS.2017.7995569.

S. Sarkar, J. Banatre, L. Rilling, and C. Morin, "Towards Enforcement of the EU GDPR: Enabling Data Erasure," in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), 30 July-3 Aug. 2018 2018, pp. 222-229, doi: 10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00067.

W. K. A. Hasan, A. M. Abood, and M. Habbal, "A Review of Blockchain-based on IoT applications (challenges and future research directions)," in 2020 5th International Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems and Industrial Applications (CITISIA), 25-27 Nov. 2020 2020, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/CITISIA50690.2020.9371814.

A. Umamageswari, M. F. Ukrit, and G. Suresh, "A survey on security in medical image communication," International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 41-45, 2011.

Q. Kester, L. Nana, A. C. Pascu, S. Gire, J. M. Eghan, and N. N. Quaynor, "A Security Technique for Authentication and Security of Medical Images in Health Information Systems," in 2015 15th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, 22-25 June 2015 2015, pp. 8-13, doi: 10.1109/ICCSA.2015.8.

C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing," in 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 14-19 March 2010 2010, pp. 1-9, doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2010.5462173.

S. Ramgovind, M. M. Eloff, and E. Smith, "The management of security in Cloud computing," in 2010 Information Security for South Africa, 2-4 Aug. 2010 2010, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/ISSA.2010.5588290.

A. Ukil, J. Sen, and S. Koilakonda, "Embedded security for Internet of Things," in 2011 2nd National Conference on Emerging Trends and Applications in Computer Science, 4-5 March 2011 2011, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/NCETACS.2011.5751382.

A. Mosenia and N. K. Jha, "A Comprehensive Study of Security of Internet-of-Things," IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 586-602, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TETC.2016.2606384.

W. K. A. Hasan, Y. Ran, J. Agbinya, and G. Tian, "A Survey of Energy Efficient IoT Network in Cloud Environment," in 2019 Cybersecurity and Cyberforensics Conference (CCC), 8-9 May 2019 2019, pp. 13-21, doi: 10.1109/CCC.2019.00-15.

D. Hutchinson and M. Warren, "Security for Internet banking: a framework," Logistics Information Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64-73, 2003, doi: 10.1108/09576050310453750.

F. Dressler and F. Kargl, "Towards security in nano-communication: Challenges and opportunities," Nano Communication Networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 151-160, 2012/09/01/ 2012, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nancom.2012.08.001.

H.-U. Park and I.-Y. Lee, "A Digital Nominative Proxy Signature Scheme for Mobile Communication," in Information and Communications Security, Berlin, Heidelberg, S. Qing, T. Okamoto, and J. Zhou, Eds., 2001// 2001: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 451-455.

S. Yoon and J. Kim, "Remote security management server for

IoT devices," in 2017 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), 18-20 Oct. 2017 2017, pp. 1162-1164, doi: 10.1109/ICTC.2017.8190885.

A. Shehab et al., "Secure and Robust Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Medical Images," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 10269-10278, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2799240.

U. A. Bhatti et al., "Hybrid watermarking algorithm using Clifford Algebra with Arnold Scrambling and Chaotic Encryption," IEEE Access, pp. 1-1, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2988298.

W. Kaswidjanti, H. Himawan, A. O. M. Dewi, M. Y. Florestiyanto, and R. I. Perwira, "Arnold Transformed Position Power First Mapping (AT-PPFM) for Secret Digital Image," in 2019 5th International Conference on Science in Information Technology (ICSITech), 23-24 Oct. 2019 2019, pp. 241-245, doi: 10.1109/ICSITech46713.2019.8987521.

T. S. Reddy, D. S. Reddy, A. N. Nihar, M. S. Sumanth, and J. Anitha, "Comparitive Analysis on Transformation based Watermarking," in 2019 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSPC), 29-30 March 2019 2019, pp. 356-360, doi: 10.1109/ICSPC46172.2019.8976716.

T. Lu, J. Shen, and T. Chang, "Effective Dual-images based Reversible Information Hiding Scheme based on Complexity Analysis and Thresholds Controlling," in 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST), 23-25 Oct. 2019 2019, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ICAwST.2019.8923492.

G. Indramohan and K. R. Naidu, "A Hybrid Reversible Image Data Hiding Scheme With Symmetric Key Cryptography," in 2019 9th International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication (ICACC), 6-8 Nov. 2019 2019, pp. 278-282, doi: 10.1109/ICACC48162.2019.8986203.

D. Hou, W. Zhang, K. Chen, S. Lin, and N. Yu, "Reversible Data Hiding in Color Image With Grayscale Invariance," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 363-374, 2019, doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2018.2803303.

M. A. Wahed, H. Nyeem, and M. F. Elahi, "An Improved Interpolation based Reversible Data Hiding for Medical Images," in 2019 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE), 7-9 Feb. 2019 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ECACE.2019.8679278.

K. Chi, "Improvement of the Bit Plane Truncation Image Scheme for Reversible Data Hiding," in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-TW), 20-22 May 2019 2019, pp. 1-2, doi: 10.1109/ICCE-TW46550.2019.8991927.

C. Maiti, D. Baksi, I. Zamider, P. Gorai, and D. R. Kisku, "Data Hiding in Images Using Some Efficient Steganography Techniques," in Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Berlin, Heidelberg, T.-h. Kim, H. Adeli, C. Ramos, and B.-H. Kang, Eds., 2011// 2011: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 195-203.

A. Habibi Lashkari, A. Abdul Manaf, M. Masrom, and S. Mohd Daud, "A Survey on Image Steganography Algorithms and Evaluation," Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, in Digital Information Processing and Communications, pp. 406-418.

A. Rehman, T. Saba, T. Mahmood, Z. Mehmood, M. Shah, and A. Anjum, "Data hiding technique in steganography for information security using number theory," Journal of Information Science, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 767-778, 2019, doi: 10.1177/0165551518816303.

R. Bhardwaj and V. Sharma, "Image Steganography Based on Complemented Message and Inverted Bit LSB Substitution," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 93, pp. 832-838, 2016/01/01/ 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.245.

S. Mukherjee, S. Roy, and G. Sanyal, "Image Steganography Using Mid Position Value Technique," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 132, pp. 461-468, 2018/01/01/ 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2018.05.160.

J. K. Sadié, L. M. Metcheka, and R. Ndoundam, "A high capacity text steganography scheme based on permutation and color coding," arXiv preprint arXiv:2004.00948, 2020.

S. Agarwal and S. Venkatraman, "Deep Residual Neural Networks for Image in Speech Steganography," arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.13217, 2020.

M. A. Hajjaji, M. Gafsi, and A. Mtibaa, "Discrete Cosine Transform Space for Hiding Patient Information in the Medical Images," in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Design & Test of Integrated Micro & Nano-Systems (DTS), 28 April-1 May 2019 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/DTSS.2019.8914880.

Y. Yang, X. Xiao, X. Cai, and W. Zhang, "A Secure and High Visual-Quality Framework for Medical Images by Contrast-Enhancement Reversible Data Hiding and Homomorphic Encryption," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 96900-96911, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2929298.

X. Liu et al., "A Novel Robust Reversible Watermarking Scheme for Protecting Authenticity and Integrity of Medical Images," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 76580-76598, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2921894.

A. Kannammal and S. Subha Rani, "Two level security for medical images using watermarking/encryption algorithms," International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 111-120, 2014, doi: 10.1002/ima.22086.

M. R. Ogiela and L. Ogiela, "Cognitive cryptography techniques for intelligent information management," International Journal of Information Management, vol. 40, pp. 21-27, 2018/06/01/ 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.01.011.

J. Tripathi, A. Saini, Kishan, Nikhil, and Shazad, "Enhanced Visual Cryptography: An Augmented Model for Image Security," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 167, pp. 323-333, 2020/01/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.03.232.

X. Wu and C.-N. Yang, "Probabilistic color visual cryptography schemes for black and white secret images," Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, p. 102793, 2020/03/11/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvcir.2020.102793.

Y. Chen, T. Hung, S. Hsieh, and C. Shiu, "A New Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image Based on Multi-Secret Sharing and Lightweight Cryptographic Algorithms," IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 3332-3343, 2019, doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2914557.

Y. Liu, Z. Jiang, X. Xu, F. Zhang, and J. Xu, "Optical image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaos and public-key cryptography," Optics & Laser Technology, vol. 127, p. 106171, 2020/07/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106171.

J. Li and Q. Zhang, "Design and implement of mobile internet security middleware," in 2013 6th International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, 23-24 Nov. 2013 2013, vol. 2, pp. 150-153, doi: 10.1109/ICIII.2013.6703106.

H. Huang, S. Yang, and R. Ye, "Efficient symmetric image encryption by using a novel 2D chaotic system," IET Image Processing, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1157-1163. [Online]. Available: https://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-ipr.2019.0551

R. Ge, G. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Chen, G. Coatrieux, and L. Luo, "A Novel Chaos-Based Symmetric Image Encryption Using Bit-Pair Level Process," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 99470-99480, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2927415.

P. Mathur, A. Yadav, V. K. Verma, and R. Purohit, "Paradigms of Image Compression and Encryption: A Review," in 2019 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Communication and Computational Techniques (ICCT), 28-29 Sept. 2019 2019, pp. 313-317, doi: 10.1109/ICCT46177.2019.8969039.

N. A. Advani and A. M. Gonsai, "Performance Analysis of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms for their Encryption and Decryption Time," in 2019 6th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 13-15 March 2019 2019, pp. 359-362.

A. M. Ahmadian and M. Amirmazlaghani, "A novel secret image sharing with steganography scheme utilizing Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding and Information Dispersal Algorithms," Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 74, pp. 78-88, 2019/05/01/ 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.image.2019.01.006.

A. Hambouz, Y. Shaheen, A. Manna, M. Al-Fayoumi, and S. Tedmori, "Achieving Data Integrity and Confidentiality Using Image Steganography and Hashing Techniques," in 2019 2nd International Conference on new Trends in Computing Sciences (ICTCS), 9-11 Oct. 2019 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICTCS.2019.8923060.

X. Tang, Y. Huang, C. Chang, and L. Zhou, "Efficient Real-Time Integrity Auditing With Privacy-Preserving Arbitration for Images in Cloud Storage System," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 33009-33023, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2904040.

M. Ali, S. U. Khan, and A. V. Vasilakos, "Security in cloud computing: Opportunities and challenges," Information Sciences, vol. 305, pp. 357-383, 2015/06/01/ 2015, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2015.01.025.

J. Laufs, H. Borrion, and B. Bradford, "Security and the smart city: A systematic review," Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 55, p. 102023, 2020/04/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2020.102023.

E. K. Szczepaniuk, H. Szczepaniuk, T. Rokicki, and B. Klepacki, "Information security assessment in public administration," Computers & Security, vol. 90, p. 101709, 2020/03/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2019.101709.

G. Reniers, G. Landucci, and N. Khakzad, "What safety models and principles can be adapted and used in security science?," Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 64, p. 104068, 2020/03/01/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104068.

M. Z. Gunduz and R. Das, "Cyber-security on smart grid: Threats and potential solutions," Computer Networks, vol. 169, p. 107094, 2020/03/14/ 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2019.107094.

B. Debnath, J. M. Alghazo, G. Latif, R. Roychoudhuri, and S. K. Ghosh, "An Analysis of Data Security and Potential Threat from IT Assets for Middle Card Players, Institutions and Individuals," Singapore, 2020: Springer Singapore, in Sustainable Waste Management: Policies and Case Studies, pp. 403-419.

D. Maulik and J. Swati, "Importance of Information Security and Strategies to Prevent Data Breaches in Mobile Devices," in Improving Business Performance Through Innovation in the Digital Economy. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2020, pp. 215-225.

M. Leitner and S. Rinderle-Ma, "A systematic review on security in Process-Aware Information Systems – Constitution, challenges, and future directions," Information and Software Technology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 273-293, 2014/03/01/ 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2013.12.004.

I. O. f. Standardization, ISO/IEC 27011: Information technology-security techniques-information security management guidelines for telecommunications organizations based on ISO/IEC 27002. ISO, 2008.

R. Anderson, Security engineering. John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

R. Lehtinen and G. Gangemi Sr, Computer Security Basics: Computer Security. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2006.

W. Stallings, L. Brown, M. D. Bauer, and A. K. Bhattacharjee, Computer security: principles and practice. Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2012.

D. Gollmann, Computer Security, 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.



International Journal of Informatics and Information Systems (IJIIS)

2579-7069 (Online)
Organized by:Bright Publisher
Published by:Bright Publisher
Website:ijiis.org or bright-journal.org/ijiis
Email:ijiis@bright-journal.org (paper handling issues)
  publication@bright-journal.org (publication issues)
  help@bright-journal.org (technical issues)

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0